Tag: Zika

Bioethics News

Sanofi Quietly Pulls the Plug on Its Zika Vaccine Project

Vaccine giant Sanofi Pasteur has quietly pulled the plug on its Zika vaccine project, a move that underscores how difficult it may be at this stage to develop a vaccine against the virus

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Research Ethics Roundup: Pregnant Women and Zika Vaccine Research, National LGBTQ Health Study Launches, New Mouse Study on Sexual Dimorphism, “The Bioethics of Remembrance”

This week’s Research Ethics Roundup looks at why researchers are not enrolling pregnant women in the early phases of Zika vaccine research, a new LGBTQ study that seeks to address participants’ health concerns, a new study that shows the sex of a mouse affects certain traits, and Dr. Susan Reverby’s case for making changes to a monument that fails to note how a prominent gynecologist used slaves in his experiments.

The post Research Ethics Roundup: Pregnant Women and Zika Vaccine Research, National LGBTQ Health Study Launches, New Mouse Study on Sexual Dimorphism, “The Bioethics of Remembrance” appeared first on Ampersand.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Ethical, legal and societal considerations on Zika virus epidemics complications in scaling-up prevention and control strategies

Much of the fear and uncertainty around Zika epidemics stem from potential association between Zika virus (ZIKV) complications on infected pregnant women and risk of their babies being born with

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

The Case for Sharing All of America’s Data on Mosquitoes

August 24, 2017

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For decades, agencies around the United States have been collecting data on mosquitoes. Biologists set traps, dissect captured insects, and identify which species they belong to. They’ve done this for millions of mosquitoes, creating an unprecedented trove of information—easily one of the biggest long-term attempts to monitor any group of animals, if not the very biggest.

The problem, according to Micaela Elvira Martinez from Princeton University and Samuel Rund from the University of Notre Dame, is that this treasure trove of data isn’t all in the same place, and only a small fraction of it is public. The rest is inaccessible, hoarded by local mosquito-control agencies around the country.

Currently, these agencies can use their data to check if their attempts to curtail mosquito populations are working. Are they doing enough to remove stagnant water, for example? Do they need to spray pesticides? But if they shared their findings, Martinez and Rund say that scientists could do much more. They could better understand the ecology of these insects, predict the spread of mosquito-borne diseases like dengue fever or Zika, coordinate control efforts across states and counties, and quickly spot the arrival of new invasive species.

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Image: By SSgt Caleb Pierce – http://www.defenseimagery.mil/imageRetrieve.action?guid=cdcaeb085fcd31fc6a8707c77f59d81d824a406e&t=2, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=26669396

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The Atlantic

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The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Pregnant Women Absent from Zika Vaccine Trials

August 15, 2017

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This uncertainty is a major reason behind researchers’ hesitancy to expose pregnant women to newer vaccines. Women do indeed get vaccinated while pregnant—against the flu or tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap), for example. But “the overall safety for flu and Tdap vaccines was established in very large populations prior to being administered to pregnant women,” says August.

Some vaccines—such as the flu vaccine—included pregnant women in clinical trials. And, notably, pregnant women were included in Phase 3 trials for the new respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine that prevents a devastating, potentially fatal infection that targets infants.

But recommendations for vaccination during pregnancy are not always backed by clinical trials. “Historically, many of the recommendations have relied on observational data,” writes Johns Hopkins bioethicist Carleigh Krubiner in an email to The Scientist. She, along with August, is part of the working group who wrote the Wellcome Trust-funded guidelines for Zika vaccine administration in expectant moms. In these cases, pregnant women were either intentionally or unintentionally given vaccines, then mother and child were observed.

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See also: PREGNANT WOMEN & THE ZIKA VIRUS VACCINE RESEARCH AGENDA: ETHICS GUIDANCE ON PRIORITIES, INCLUSION, AND EVIDENCE GENERATION

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The Scientist

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The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

CRISPR diagnoisis tool. A new biomedical breakthrough from genome editing to disease diagnosis

CRISPR techniques are gaining traction in another realm of medical technology. CRISPR diagnosis tool

It has recently been announced that the CRISPR tool, used up to now in the field of genome editing, can be used in another field, namely in diagnosis, combining it with the enzyme Cas13a instead of with Cas9 (See HERE). By combining CRISPR with the new enzyme, discovered by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, investigators can quickly and cheaply detect several specific RNA sequences at the same time, including the RNA of some viruses, such as Zika. This new use does not fall within the field of genome editing, so it does not share its bioethical issues, but it is a major biomedical breakthrough.

La entrada CRISPR diagnoisis tool. A new biomedical breakthrough from genome editing to disease diagnosis aparece primero en Bioethics Observatory.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

How Pregnant Women Are Sidelined By Science

July 26, 2017

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Pregnant women get bossed around by doctors‚ relatives and strangers dispensing advice on what’s best for their baby.

But a new study says the coercion of mothers-to-be — in particular their exclusion from clinical studies — is unfair and potentially harmful.

Doctors Carleigh Krubiner and Ruth Faden‚ from Johns Hopkins University in the US‚ said there was a desperate need to “protect women through research‚ not just from research”.

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Image: By Beth.herlin – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=46867814

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Sunday Times ZA

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The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

To Shrink Mosquito Population, Scientists Are Releasing 20 Million Mosquitoes

July 21, 2017

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This summer, scientists in California are releasing 20 million mosquitoes in an effort to shrink the population of mosquitoes that can carry diseases.

It sounds counterintuitive. But the plan is to release millions of sterile male mosquitoes, which will then mate with wild female mosquitoes. The eggs the females lay won’t hatch, researchers say.

The project is called Debug Fresno and it’s being undertaken by Verily, a subsidiary of Alphabet, Google’s holding company. It’s the company’s first field study involving sterile mosquitoes in the U.S.

Scientists say the goal is to cut the population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes — the species responsible for spreading Zika, dengue and chikungunya. A. aegypti have been present in California’s Central Valley since 2013 and have been a problem in Fresno County.

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NPR The Two-Way

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The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Zika Rewrites Maternal Immunization Ethics

July 20, 2017

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Ever since the shocking realization in 1961 that the morning sickness pill thalidomide caused shortened limbs in babies, doctors have been extremely wary of giving any medicine to a pregnant woman—and testing experimental drugs has raised even more concerns. But the recent discovery that exposure to Zika virus in utero can cause severe brain damage and other problems in children triggered an international effort to develop a vaccine for pregnant women. A new report written by an ad hoc group of prominent researchers, bioethicists, clinicians, and drugmakers concludes that pregnant women should be included in trials of Zika vaccines, once safety in animals and nonpregnant adults is demonstrated. The risk/benefit issues spelled out in the report also apply to experiments with maternal immunization for other diseases, which are winning increasing support.

Researchers have been too reticent to include pregnant women in clinical trials of vaccines, contends the working group behind the report. “Even for the vaccines we now recommend in pregnancy, pertussis and flu, the original trials did not include pregnant women,” says Carleigh Krubiner, a bioethicist at the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics in Baltimore, Maryland, who is part of the group, which was sponsored by the London-based Wellcome Trust. “This project is trying to be more proactive.”

The half-dozen Zika vaccine trials now taking place only enroll women of childbearing age who are on contraception or have a sterile male partner. That is appropriate, according to the risk/benefit analyses spelled out in the report, as these early studies assess only safety and basic immune responses.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Another Milestone in the Cystic Fibrosis Journey

Caption: Two-year-old Avalyn is among the cystic fibrosis patients who may be helped by targeted drugs.
Credit: Brittany Mahoney

As NIH Director, I often hear stories of how people with serious diseases—from arthritis to Zika infection—are benefitting from the transformational power of NIH’s investments in basic science. Today, I’d like to share one such advance that I find particularly exciting: news that a combination of three molecularly targeted drugs may finally make it possible to treat the vast majority of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), our nation’s most common genetic disease.

First, a bit of history! The first genetic mutation that causes CF was discovered by a collaborative effort between my own research lab at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and colleagues at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto—more than 25 years ago [1]. Years of hard work, supported by the National Institutes of Health and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, painstakingly worked out the normal function of the protein that is altered in CF, called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR). Very recently new technologies, such as cryo-EM, have given researchers the ability to map the exact structure of the protein involved in CF.

Among the tens of thousands of CF patients who stand to benefit from the next generation of targeted drugs is little Avalyn Mahoney of Cardiff by the Sea, CA. Just a few decades ago, a kid like Avalyn—who just turned 2 last month—probably wouldn’t have made it beyond her teens. But today the outlook is far brighter for her and so many others, thanks to recent advances that build upon NIH-supported basic research.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.