Tag: sex offenses

Bioethics Blogs

Biopolitical News of 2014

2014 has been another busy, and decidedly mixed, year in biopolitics.

Some technical advances suggest that gene therapies and genomics-based personalized medicine may be coming closer, while a few advocates seize on the same news to speculate about making irreversible, dangerous, and socially pernicious changes to the human genome.

The need for regulation of new human biotechnologies became both more obvious and more widely accepted this year, but simultaneously there were efforts (which may succeed in the UK) to shatter long-accepted norms by allowing a form of inheritable genetic modification based on nuclear genome transfer techniques.

Other biopolitical developments also abounded, from commercial surrogacy, egg freezing parties and early-pregnancy fetal gene tests, to police DNA databases and resurgent claims about race as biology. These and yet more new biotech products and practices bring us ever closer to unprecedented personal and societal dilemmas and decisions. 

The Center for Genetics and Society (CGS) continues to monitor all of these developments, and attempts to encourage their responsible usage and effective societal governance. Many of the following issues inevitably blend into each other, but here is a brief overview of the most important biopolitical developments of 2014, roughly grouped by topic:

Surrogacy

A number of countries grappled with how to regulate surrogacy in 2014. Ireland published draft surrogacy legislation in February; Toronto saw a boom in surrogacy despite it being only semi-legal; India took further steps to determine how to regulate its huge surrogacy market.

International surrogacy arrangements came under increasing media scrutiny, including a three-part front-page series in The New York Times (1, 2, 3).

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

A Season of Surrogacy Scandals

The summer and fall of 2014 have been a season of surrogacy scandals revealed. Media reports describe disturbing practices taking place in one country after another, including Thailand, Australia, China, and Mexico.

A front-page series in The New York Times by Tamar Lewin seemed to kick off a run of high-profile coverage. Lewin’s lengthy July 5 story focuses on people who come to the US for contract pregnancies because their own countries prohibit them. It gives plenty of play to surrogacy “success stories,” but also includes sharply critical comments by women’s health advocates from Canada and Germany, neither of which permit commercial surrogacy.

“Just like we don’t pay for blood or semen, we don’t pay for eggs or sperm or babies,” said Abby Lippman, an emeritus professor at McGill University in Montreal who studies reproductive technology. “There’s a very general consensus that paying surrogates would commodify women and their bodies. I think in the United States, it’s so consumer-oriented, so commercially oriented, so caught up in this ‘It’s my right to have a baby’ approach, that people gloss over some big issues.”

“We regard surrogacy as exploitation of women and their reproductive capacities,” [said Dr. Ingrid Schneider of the University of Hamburg’s Research Center for Biotechnology, Society and the Environment].

On July 27, Lewin followed up with another front-page feature, this one about the notorious Los Angeles-based surrogacy agency Planet Hospital, which recently declared bankruptcy after defrauding dozens of intending parents and women working as surrogate mothers.

A few days later, the sad story of “Baby Gammy” hit the headlines and ricocheted around the world.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

International Surrogacy, Global Consumerism, Harms to Women and Children

Pattaramon Chanbua, Thai surrogate mother to Baby Gammy.
Pattaramon Chanbua, Thai surrogate mother to Baby Gammy.

This summer two separate incidents highlighted the deeply troubling problems that can arise in inter-country surrogacy arrangements. In the most extensively covered situation, the “Baby Gammy” case, an Australian couple left their infant son who has Down syndrome with his Thai surrogate mother and returned home with his twin sister. The husband was then discovered to have been convicted of multiple child sex offenses that took place between the early 1980s and early 1990s against girls as young as 5.

In the second incident, a young Japanese businessman fathered 16 children with multiple Thai surrogate mothers, only weeks or months apart, and then told Thai police that he simply wanted a large family.

The New York Times covered these stories in an article titled “Thailand’s Business in Paid Surrogates May Be Foundering in a Moral Quagmire.

What should we make of these disturbing stories? Should we see them as revealing the ingenuity of consumers (commissioning parents and particularly fathers) in devising ways to exploit women as breeders in the unregulated global market of medically assisted reproduction? Is Baby Gammy’s story best understood as a tale of eugenics by a man convicted of abusing children (his words: “I don’t think any parent wants a son with a disability”)?  What does the story of the Japanese man who fathered (perhaps “sired” is the better term) all those infants share with Theresa Erickson’s international baby-selling fraud, which also involved the horrendous abuse of unknowing women?  

Both stories raise policy questions about inter-country medically assisted reproduction, including the screening of intended parents, the parentage and citizenship status of children born of international commercial surrogacy, and these children’s welfare and interests in knowing their bio-social origins as a matter of identity.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

An International Agreement on Commercial Surrogacy?

A lively and informative three-day forum convened in The Hague from August 11-13. The International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy brought together nearly a hundred scholars, women’s health and human rights advocates, and policymakers from 27 countries at the International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University, the Forum’s host organization.

The Forum aimed to provide a venue “to discuss ways to improve international standards around the evolving practices of cross-border adoption and surrogacy, in which children typically move from poorer to wealthier countries.”  The Center for Genetics and Society chaired the “Global Surrogacy Practices” thematic area of the conference.

Serendipitously, the Forum occurred in the wake of headlines about two disturbing surrogacy incidents in Thailand. In one case, an Australian couple was accused of abandoning their baby son, who has Down syndrome, with his Thai surrogate mother and returning home with his twin sister (1, 2); the husband was then revealed to have been convicted of multiple child sex offenses that took place between the early 1980s and early 1990s against girls as young as five. In the other news story, a young Japanese businessman fathered sixteen children since June 2013 with Thai surrogate mothers, claiming that he wanted a large family (1, 2).

These incidents took surrogacy out of its usual celebrity-drive spotlight and highlighted the risks of unregulated international surrogacy arrangements for a broader public. For Forum participants, they also underlined concerns about children born as a result of contract pregnancies, and set the stage for discussions of the “best interests of the child,” which is a foundational concept of the 1993 Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption (HCIA).

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Disability Will Never Be Immoral

The summer’s “ice bucket challenge” has brought an extraordinary amount of attention to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease impacting nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. What you may not know about ALS is that it is only very rarely inherited, at least through any determined genetic mechanism. It is currently thought that “only about 5% of all patients with ALS will have a genetic change” causing the disease. Genetic testing is available for patients who have both symptoms and a family history, but it is rarely recommended.

This does not mean that genetic testing for ALS will not be marketed to people concerned for their health, or for that of their children, especially given the peak in interest at this time. Genetic screening for the “breast cancer genes” BRCA1 and BRCA2 has become widespread, and prenatal genetic tests to detect them are also on the rise. But as with ALS, the vast majority of breast cancer cases have nothing to do with inherited genes.

Of course, there are plenty of traits that are more clearly and commonly linked to genetic variations. Prenatal genetic testing for such conditions significantly raises the stakes of what can be done with that knowledge.

All parents-to-be must be able to make their own choices about their ability to raise any child, but unfortunately too many are presented with a prenatal diagnosis without accompanying information about what it actually means for their child or their family. The slick marketing of prenatal genetic testing has sparked concern about its propensity to dehumanize conditions while normalizing specific responses.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.