Tag: religion

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How Different are Female, Male and Intersex Genital Cutting?

By Brian D. Earp  (@briandavidearp), with Rebecca Steinfeld, Goldsmiths, University of London 

Three members of the Dawoodi Bohra sect of Islam were recently indicted on charges of “female genital mutilation” (FGM) in the US state of Michigan. In Norway, meanwhile, one of the major political parties has backed a measure to ban childhood male circumcision.

Fearing that objections to female forms of genital cutting will be applied to male forms, some commentators have rushed to draw a “clear distinction” between them. Others, however, have highlighted the similarities.

In fact, childhood genital cutting is usually divided not just into two, but three separate categories: “FGM” for females; “circumcision” for males; and “genital normalisation” surgery for intersex children – those born with ambiguous genitals or mixed sex characteristics.

In Western countries, popular attitudes towards these procedures differ sharply depending on the child’s sex. In females, any medically unnecessary genital cutting, no matter how minor or sterilised, is seen as an intolerable violation of her bodily integrity and human rights. Most Westerners believe that such cutting must be legally prohibited.

In intersex children, while it is still common for doctors to surgically modify their genitals without a strict medical justification, there is growing opposition to non-essential “cosmetic” surgeries, designed to mould ambiguous genitalia into a “binary” male or female appearance.

Belgian model Hanne Gaby Odiele, for example, has spoken openly about the negative impact of the “irreversible, unconsented and unnecessary” intersex surgeries she was subjected to growing up.

In male children, by contrast, the dominant view is that boys are not significantly harmed by being circumcised, despite the loss of sensitive tissue.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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Oxford Uehiro Prize in Practical Ethics: Prostitution: You Can’t Have Your Cake and Sell It*. Written by Simon-Pierre Chevarie-Cossette

This essay received an Honorable Mention in the Graduate Category of the Oxford Uehiro Prize in Practical Ethics 2017

Written by University of Oxford student, Simon-Pierre Chevarie-Cossette

Abstract:        I offer a new** argument for the thesis that prostitution is not just a normal job. It has the advantage of being compatible with the claim that humans should have full authority over their sexual life. In fact, it is ultimately the emphasis on this authority that leads the thesis that prostitution is a normal job to collapse. Here is the argument: merchants cannot (both legally and morally) discriminate whom they transact with on the basis of factors like the ethnicity or the religion of their client; but if prostitutes are ‘sex merchants’, then they cannot (both legally and morally) discriminate whom they have sex with on the basis of these factors. Yet everyone should have the full discretionary power to refuse to have sex under any circumstances.

1. Introduction

You have made it thus far: the wedding preparation is almost over. You enter your local bakery, cheekily anticipating the moment when you’ll order a wedding cake for ‘John & John’. But to your dismay, the baker turns you down because your marriage goes against his ‘Christian beliefs’.

This is a true story and it is a recurrent one. In 2013, Administrative Law Judge Robert N. Spencer found the owner of Masterpiece Cakeshop guilty of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.[1] The decision was then maintained by the Colorado Civil Rights Commission[2] and again by the Court of Appeal[3].

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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Bending the Odds: Pedagogy and Dialogue in Large Lecture Courses by Sandra Hyde

As academics in large public research universities, I am always amazed that when we speak of an ideal pedagogy, we speak about our small intimate seminars where we have the time and resources to experiment with 25 students or less. In my 13 years of teaching, I look forward to those settings when I get to teach one small undergraduate seminar a year. Over the years, I have also tried to make my large lecture hall shrink by trying to utilize different techniques to foster student based learning and most important, to create more interactive group problem solving and reduce the teacher as lord model of education. While this often works in small seminars, those wonderful nuggets of intimate interactive learning, I find it a challenge to accomplish this when I am in large lecture halls (over 200 students) with limited to graduate student teaching support.

In a large Introduction to Medical Anthropology course (what is called Anthropology 227 at McGill), I have worked over the years to integrate more student-interactive learning. I often compare teaching this course to managing a large ocean-liner with staff of different standing and students who are extremely eclectic as they are drawn from across campus from multiple faculties. For example, students in engineering and medicine will take the course as their one social science requirement and for others they find introduction to medical anthropology intriguing. Students in the humanities are also looking to take their one social science course. There are also medical practitioners and their allied health colleagues often nursing students returning to university to complete their BS.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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Teaching Medical Anthropology by Ari Gandsman

In the decade since becoming a full time professor, medical anthropology has been one of my core courses. I have taught it seven times.  Although the basic structure of the course remains similar, emphases have shifted over time. Perhaps I can best highlight the evolution of the course through a discussion of readings I use since readings are the backbone of a syllabus.  Even though I generally do not follow texts closely since I see lectures as overlapping but also supplemental and complimentary to readings, I try to mirror topics that they will be reading about, often highlighting a general theoretical literature or approach while the students read a single illustration.

Starting from the beginning, my history of medical anthropology remains the same, focusing on when “medicine” was subsumed into broad and now antiquated anthropological categories of magic and witchcraft. I never stray far from Evans-Pritchard’s Witchcraft, Oracles & Magic Among The Azande, an apparent professional contractual obligation for meAlthough I have given them the entire ethnography [the abridged in print edition] to read twice in the past, I have more lately just given them a short excerpt, often “The Notion of Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events.” I once also used W.H. Rivers Medicine, Magic and Religion but, although fascinating and of historic importance, it proved esoteric for an undergraduate course.  When I first started teaching, I tried to include more on non-Western medical systems, including using ethnographies on Traditional Chinese Medicine or Tibetan medicine. More recent students may be disappointed that I do not delve further into non-Western medical systems, what many students with hazy ideas of the discipline may think a medical anthropology course should almost entirely consist of.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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Why Addiction Narratives Matter

By Katie Givens Kime
Image courtesy of
Merrimack Repertory Theatre.

“My Higher Power is: Science!” proclaims Sean, a newly recovered alcoholic. “Sean” is the lead character in a comedic play, “The White Chip,” which premiered last year at Merrimac Repertory Theatre outside of Boston, Massachusetts. Written by Sean Daniels, the play dramatizes Daniels’ own near demise from alcoholism, and his experience of recovery. Neuroethics is writ large as the play tells the story of how critically important various addiction etiologies can be for those struggling with alcoholism, or addiction of any sort. In Sean’s case, the etiology is the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA) in a notable combination with the “Higher Power” understanding of 12-step programs, which he credits with saving his life. Behind the curious twists of the play, questions linger: which model of addiction should be presented to those in recovery, when so much conflict exists amongst addiction researchers, clinicians, and recovery care providers? At what point does an effective (potentially life-saving) narrative of addiction etiology supersede the obligation to provide all sides of the controversial matter of addiction modeling?

When Sean “hits bottom,” he has destroyed his career, his marriage, his health, and nearly lost his life while driving drunk. He enters a rehabilitation facility, but struggles with the suggestion that he find a “Higher Power.” Such a practice is reflective of the metaphysical claim central to Alcoholics Anonymous, and every other 12-step program: surrender to a Higher Power of the addict’s understanding, and is perhaps the most significant distinguishing feature separating 12-step methods from other recovery pathways.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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MCDES – Pathways to Hope for Moral Injury & Other Invisible Wounds

The Minnesota Coalition for Death Education and Support (MCDES) is producing an all-day conference on May 5, 2017: “Pathways to Hope for Moral Injury & Other Invisible Wounds.”


Objectives

  • Describe moral injury and related mental health traumas, e.g., PTSD.
  • Describe how forms of oppression relate to moral injury.
  • Identify and list resources, methods, and strategiesfor recovery through the arts, spiritual counseling, training, storytelling, and ritual processes.
  • Describe public lamentation for processing certain aspects of moral injury such as feelings of sorrow, betrayal, isolation, regret, and shame.
  • List strategies for educating and involving community organizations in working with those struggling with moral injury.
  • Identify and list strategies for turning greater national attention to moral injury and its impacts on physical and mental health in the larger society.



Schedule


What Moral Injury Is & What It Is Not
◆ Different Definitions of Moral Injury
◆ PTSD & Moral Injury
◆ How it is Part of Many Kinds of Trauma
◆ Dimensions of Loss & Grief in Moral Injury
◆ How Perpetrator-Victim Framing Relates to Moral Responsibility for Harm


The Places & People Impacted by Moral Injury 
◆ Moral Injury in Caregivers
◆ Oppression as Context for Inescapable Moral Injury
◆ Thinking about Suffering in Relation to Moral Injury
◆ Individual & Collective Forms


Strategies for Individual & Community Recovery
◆ Individual Strategies for Recovery.
◆ Relational Strategies for Recovery
◆ Community Strategies for Recovery
◆ Arts, Animals, Public Service


Religion & the Big Meaning Picture & Moral Injury
◆ Larger Implications of Understanding Moral Injury in Society
◆ How to Address Moral Injury in Organizations & Communities
◆ Ritual, Religion, & Benevolent Moral Authorities
◆ Restoration of Hope & Human Flourishing

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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7th Annual Western Michigan University Medical Humanities Conference

The Western Michigan University Medical Humanities Workgroup and the WMU Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine Program in Medical Ethics, Humanities & Law is proud to announce the 7th Annual Western Michigan University Medical Humanities Conference


September 14-15, 2017

Kalamazoo, Michigan


Overview:  Proponents of medical humanities contend that the humanistic dimensions of medicine and health are a critical component of those disciplines; not only do these dimensions help us to understand the very nature of medicine and health, their apprehension allows caregivers to relate to their patients, to treat those patients with respect and dignity, and to provide more holistic and empathetic care. 



The 7th Annual Western Michigan University Medical Humanities Conference is committed to the creative, dynamic, interdisciplinary explorations of the range of themes within the broad theme of medical humanities. This highly interdisciplinary conference draws participants from a wide range of backgrounds, including those from academic, creative, and medical communities.



Keynotes: This year’s conference Keynote speakers will be Dr. Jay Baruch and Professor Katie Watson.



AbstractsAbstracts will be considered in the following categories:

  • Oral Presentations: 20 minute presentations by one or two authors
  • Panel discussions: 60 minute presentations by a panel of speakers (generally 3-5). Panel discussions are expected to be interdisciplinary and explore a single topic from multiple perspectives.
  • Workshops: 60-90 minute presentations with a focus on audience interaction and the creation of some artwork. Previous successful workshops have included mentored drawing, poetry writing, performance dance, etc.
  • Posters/Visual Arts: Displays of visual arts, and performances (including dance, musical, theatre, etc.)

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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ORGAN DONATION AFTER MEDICAL AID IN DYING

Jennifer A. Chandler describes some of the ethical and legal challenges surrounding organ donation following medical assistance in dying.

__________________________________________

Today, it is medically possible to donate organs following death brought about by medical assistance in dying. This currently happens in countries like Belgium and the Netherlands. People with neurodegenerative conditions like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, or multiple sclerosis (MS) are eligible to donate organs. Those with cancer, however, are not eligible because of risks to recipients.

In Canada, people with neurodegenerative conditions who satisfy the legal eligibility criteria for assisted dying may also meet the medical eligibility criteria for organ donation. However, this possibility raises novel ethical, legal, and policy issues that must be carefully considered. The following four hypothetical cases illustrate some of these issues.

CASE 1 – A patient seeks assisted dying and wants to donate to a family member.

Some provinces allow people to direct their organ donations to relatives after they die. Some patients who choose assisted dying may derive some comfort from being able to help a family member in this way. There is the risk, however, that patients may feel pressured to seek assisted dying, in part, to benefit a sick relative.

CASE 2 – A family member is asked to consent to cornea donation for a loved one who passed away through assisted dying. The patient was not asked about this before his death because he was not registered as an organ donor, and nobody wanted to burden him with the decision. 

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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An Emerging Public Health Crisis

The Executive Order on Refugees: An Emerging Public Health Crisis

 


March 10, 2017 Update:

 

New in The Lancet: The Revised US Refugee Ban, Health, and Security, Leonard Rubenstein and Paul Spiegel

“The new order suspending and then shrinking the refugee resettlement programme does not bring any security gains and imposes tremendous mental and physical harm on people who have suffered more than most of us can even imagine. Let them in.”

 


February 21, 2017 Update:

 

Ethics, Refugees, and the President’s Executive Order, Nancy Kass, ScD

“The values emblematic of our country are often thought to include deep commitments to individual liberties and to entrepreneurship, but also empathy for others, care for the sick, and broad interests –regardless of how we get there– in lifting the tide for all. Mogens Lykketoft, former UN General Assembly President said, “The genuine loss and pain these people are suffering should be unbearable for all of us.

This sentiment should exemplify our common morality.”

 


 

The Executive Order on Refugees: An Emerging Public Health Crisis

 

Please note, due to technical difficulties with sound recording, the first few minutes lack audio, audio begins at 4:15.


 

via Johns Hopkins HUB

 

The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health hosted a symposium examining the consequences of President Donald Trump’s executive order suspending the U.S. refugee admission program.

 

The symposium, “The Executive Order on Refugees: An Emerging Public Health Crisis,” took place in the Bloomberg School’s Sommer Hall on JHU’s East Baltimore campus and was cosponsored by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

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A New Edition of Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Is Now Available

March 1, 2017

Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion (vol. 55, no. 3, 2017) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Is This Relevant? Physician Perceptions, Clinical Relevance, and Religious Content in Clinical Interactions” by Aaron B. Franzen
  • “Bridging Science and Religion: How Health-Care Workers as Storytellers Construct Spiritual Meanings” by Don Grant, Jeff Sallaz, and Cindy Cain

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.