Bioethics News

Zika Timeline of Events

Zika Timeline of Events

February 14, 2017

Even though the Zika virus did not make national headlines until November 2015 when Brazil declared a national emergency after reporting an abnormally high number of cases of babies born with microcephaly or Guillain-Barré syndrome, the virus was actually first identified in 1947 in a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. Zika is a mosquito-borne disease that shows mild-to-moderate symptoms in adult humans. Its symptoms are similar to dengue fever and chikungunya. The first human case of Zika was found in Uganda and The United Republic of Tanzania in 1952.

In the intervening sixty years, some cases of Zika were found throughout western Africa and Asia. However, these populations seemed to have a fairly good immunity to the disease. It was not until the virus hit the Pacific Islands in 2007 that it became an outbreak. In 2013, a Zika outbreak occurred in several more Pacific Island nations, and it was during this time that Zika was suspected of causing neurological and autoimmune problems.

By March 2015, Brazil reported an illness that expressed a skin rash, and by May, Brazil confirmed that Zika was in the country. In July, they found that certain neurological disorders correlated with Zika infection, but this was isolated to the state of Bahia. Then, in October, Brazil reported an inordinate number of cases of microcephaly among newborns, and declared a national emergency in November. Meanwhile, cases of Zika were increasingly reported throughout northern South America and Central America. By January 2016, researchers had drawn preliminary links to pregnant mothers infected by Zika and babies born with microcephaly.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.