Tag: pain

Bioethics News

The Future of Bioethics: Organ Transplantation, Genetic Testing, and Euthanasia

By Ana Lita

When you think of bioethics, some of the first hot-button topics you may consider are organ transplantation, fertility and genetic engineering, and end-of-life-care. The Global Bioethics Initiative serves as a platform to address many bioethical questions and engages in public debates to develop resolutions to present and emerging issues.

Dr. Ana Lita, founder of the Global Bioethics Initiative, discusses the various areas GBI addresses and highlights the organization’s contributors in their prospective fields. She acknowledges the valuable contribution of the current president of GBI, Dr. Bruce Gelb, in the field of organ transplantation. She also addresses the original co-founder of GBI, Dr. Charles Debrovner, and his lifelong passion in the field of fertility and genetic engineering. Lastly, Dr. Lita offers a brief insight into the future of Bioethics in these uncertain times.

ORGAN MARKETS AND THE ETHICS OF TRANSPLANTATION 

Recent developments in immunosuppressive drugs and improved surgical techniques have now made it much easier to successfully transplant organs from one human body to another. Unfortunately, these developments have led to the rise of black-markets in human organs. This underground market is where people who need kidneys to survive or to improve the quality of their lives, for example, purchasing such organs from impoverished persons in the developing world. In January 2017, scientists announced that they successfully created the first human-pig hybrid and a pig embryo with some human characteristics. Given the increasing need for transplant organs, should such markets be regulated and legalized?  Could the success of therapeutic cloning eliminate the need to consider this option?

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

PANEL (4/3): Opiate Regulation Policies – Balancing Pain and Addiction

Opiate Regulation Policies: Balancing Pain and Addiction  April 3, 2017 12:00 PM Austin Hall, West Classroom (111) Harvard Law School, 1515 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA Description The current opiate epidemic has spurred long-overdue scrutiny on the pharmaceutical production and distribution of … Continue reading

Source: Bill of Health, examining the intersection of law and health care, biotech & bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Would You “Donate” Your Kidney for $1,000?

Crossposted from Rising to the Challenge, The Campaign for Johns Hopkins

 

Nearly 100,000 Americans sit on the waiting list for kidney donations, but only about 17,000 of the organs are transplanted each year — despite the fact that living donors can provide kidneys. What could help close the gap between the need and the supply? Might providing some kind of altruistic incentives or financial compensation for donors be a step toward saving thousands of lives, and with what ethical implications?

 

That thorny question is one of nine that Hopkins faculty are examining with Exploration of Practical Ethics grants administered by the Berman Institute of Bioethics. Established in part by a generous gift from university trustee Andreas Dracopoulos, the program funds one-year pilot studies that address key questions in professions and scholarly disciplines, within institutions, and throughout society.

 

“Research institutions like Hopkins are perfect for this kind of inquiry, because we don’t just produce graduates who can go out into the world and solve these problems. We produce the thought processes that inform the way future leaders will make decisions,” says Maria Merritt, an associate professor in the Berman Institute and Bloomberg School of Public Health. Merritt is overseeing the portfolio of funded awards in her role as program officer for the Exploration of Practical Ethics effort.

 

Vikram Chib and Mario Macis

 

Informing the debate over the ethics of payments for organ donation is the goal of a project proposed by Mario Macis, an associate professor in the Carey Business School, Vikram Chib, an associate professor in the Whiting School of Engineering, and Nicola Lacetera, an associate professor at the University of Toronto.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

De-stigmatization of the disgraceful mark of stigma in the opioid crisis

 

After attending Albany Government
Law Review’s symposium,
Script to Street: Opioids
and the Law in the Capital District

this past Thursday, there was several issues addressed but the one overarching
concern was about the role of stigma in this opioid crisis. Many different
types of stigma were identified and the different ways our negative judgments
have impacted society. As one speaker during the first panel discussion stated,
addiction is not a new problem. He described one historic painting that showed
different reactions of society to addiction: disgust, numbness, shock, or
simply ignoring the problem. All of these reactions illustrate stigma and shows
how despite all our social advancements, we still have not eliminated (or destigmatized)
stigma of the addiction problem.
 

 Some definitions of stigma
include a
mark of disgrace, society disapproval of something, or a negative set of beliefs society has about something. 
All definitions include this
perceived negativity and describe stigma as bad. Stigma is not something one
like to face and usually, a judgment one tends to try avoiding.
 

 The issue with stigma our
current opioid crisis is that it is not just one type of stigma, it is layers
of stigma on top of one another. There is the stigma of being a drug user and
the stereotypes of who is a drug user (the poor, African American, Hispanic).
 Drug-users are
perceived to be “bad” people who only care about drugs.  This perception becomes a barrier to
treatment as individuals do not want to seek treatment in fears they will be
labeled as a drug user, even if these individuals are suffering from chronic
pain.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

An Emerging Public Health Crisis

The Executive Order on Refugees: An Emerging Public Health Crisis

 


March 10, 2017 Update:

 

New in The Lancet: The Revised US Refugee Ban, Health, and Security, Leonard Rubenstein and Paul Spiegel

“The new order suspending and then shrinking the refugee resettlement programme does not bring any security gains and imposes tremendous mental and physical harm on people who have suffered more than most of us can even imagine. Let them in.”

 


February 21, 2017 Update:

 

Ethics, Refugees, and the President’s Executive Order, Nancy Kass, ScD

“The values emblematic of our country are often thought to include deep commitments to individual liberties and to entrepreneurship, but also empathy for others, care for the sick, and broad interests –regardless of how we get there– in lifting the tide for all. Mogens Lykketoft, former UN General Assembly President said, “The genuine loss and pain these people are suffering should be unbearable for all of us.

This sentiment should exemplify our common morality.”

 


 

The Executive Order on Refugees: An Emerging Public Health Crisis

 

Please note, due to technical difficulties with sound recording, the first few minutes lack audio, audio begins at 4:15.


 

via Johns Hopkins HUB

 

The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health hosted a symposium examining the consequences of President Donald Trump’s executive order suspending the U.S. refugee admission program.

 

The symposium, “The Executive Order on Refugees: An Emerging Public Health Crisis,” took place in the Bloomberg School’s Sommer Hall on JHU’s East Baltimore campus and was cosponsored by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Another Way to Cut MedMal Damages?

To limit liability and increase predictability, scholars and policymakers have long focused on capping damages awards.  In particular, they have been worried that there are many runaway jury awards for non-economic damages (i.e., pain and suffering).  Because these are not … Continue reading

Source: Bill of Health, examining the intersection of law and health care, biotech & bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Assisted Suicide Heads to Colorado

By: Tyler Cosmer

While the outcome of our recent election cycle have represented a country with polarized viewpoints of America’s future policies, one ballot initiative has emerged as a force of consensus. Voters in Colorado overwhelmingly passed Proposition 106 with a clear 64.6% in favor to 35.4% not in favor.[1]  Proposition 106, more commonly known as the “End of Life Options Act,” now gives eligibility for self-administered aid-in-dying medication to terminally ill Coloradans, provided they only have six months or less to live and that they are mentally competent.[2]  Colorado is now the sixth in the United States to sanction physician-assisted suicide for terminally ill citizens, joining Oregon, Washington, California, Montana, and Vermont.[3]  This vote is pivotal for Colorado, marking the latest opportunity for public reflection and debate centered upon how we think about the end of life.

Medical error is the third leading cause of death, behind heart disease and cancer.[11] Opponents to Proposition 106 cite the possible scenario in which an individual is given access to end of life medication, and prematurely ends their life when they might have been able to overcome their prognosis.  Yet, as access to physician-assisted suicide continues to grow, richer data sets regarding impacts of the practice have become available. A 2007 inquiry on how physician-assisted suicide impacts vulnerable populations found no evidence of heightened risks in end of life decision-making in Oregon and in the Netherlands.[12]  

Proposition 106 borrows heavily upon Oregon’s pioneering Death with Dignity Act of 1997.[4]  Similar to Oregon’s Act, Colorado’s version indicates that the request to receive life-ending medication must be the sole initiative of the patient.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

#SoComplicatedSyllabus – Check it out and please contribute! by Deborah Levine

“I have to tell you, it’s an unbelievably complex subject…Nobody knew that health care could be so complicated,” said Donald J. Trump on Monday, February 27, at a press conference. This was his answer to a question about the then-seemingly stalled, but as of now reinvigorated, plans to repeal the Affordable Care Act, the 2010 health care law that is—both derisively and affectionately, depending on your political affiliations—known as Obamacare.

Pundits and journalists weighed in quickly with snarky jokes; it seemed they couldn’t help themselves. “Nobody? Nobody! Of course, everybody knows that health care reform is complicated,” said Jordan Weissman at Slate.com. On Twitter, thousands tried their hands at memes and quips, many of which paired pictures of Hillary Clinton or Bernie Sanders laughing next to Donald Trump’s quote. Others remarked that they themselves must be “nobodies,” since they knew well that health care was complicated.

Perhaps unintentionally, the President actually made a really important point. If you aren’t someone who spends much time thinking about or studying the U.S. health care system, it can be stunning just how complex every aspect of the system is. I trained as a historian of medicine, and I teach undergraduate courses on the workings of the American health care system in a policy program. My students are continually surprised by the contradictory inequalities and complexities of our so-called “system.” In the fall of 2015, after participating at a conference with an international audience of scholars in Dublin, Ireland, the overarching question I got over dinner, from a highly educated audience of peer academics, was one of incredulous dismay, and amounted to: Is this really how the health care system in the US works?

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

What’s the Best Day to Die?

Among people receiving hospice care, the last few days of life can be intense, with progression of pain or breathing problems or other symptoms of their terminal illnesses. For those who die on Sundays, that means they are less likely … Continue reading

The post What’s the Best Day to Die? appeared first on PeterUbel.com.

Source: bioethics.net, a blog maintained by the editorial staff of The American Journal of Bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

What’s the Best Day to Die?

Among people receiving hospice care, the last few days of life can be intense, with progression of pain or breathing problems or other symptoms of their terminal illnesses. For those who die on Sundays, that means they are less likely … Continue reading

The post What’s the Best Day to Die? appeared first on PeterUbel.com.

Source: bioethics.net, a blog maintained by the editorial staff of The American Journal of Bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.