Tag: food

Bioethics Blogs

Research Ethics Roundup: New England Journal of Medicine Editor Wants Changes in Research Culture, Why Lab Animals Aren’t Simply “Human Stand-Ins,” Proposal for National Research Integrity Board, and FDA Approves Drugs Faster than European Medicines Agency

This week’s Research Ethics Roundup examines the New England Journal of Medicine’s (NEJM) editor-in-chief’s call for a new approach to sharing clinical trial data, how experts are trying to improve drug testing success rates by reviewing pre-clinical research assumptions, a National Academies committee’s call for a nongovernmental body to promote research integrity, and a new study that rebuts critics’ claims that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is slow to approve new drugs for the American market.

The post Research Ethics Roundup: New England Journal of Medicine Editor Wants Changes in Research Culture, Why Lab Animals Aren’t Simply “Human Stand-Ins,” Proposal for National Research Integrity Board, and FDA Approves Drugs Faster than European Medicines Agency appeared first on Ampersand.

Source: Ampersand, the blog of PRIM&R.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Research Ethics Roundup: New England Journal of Medicine Editor Wants Changes in Research Culture, Why Lab Animals Aren’t Simply “Human Stand-Ins,” Proposal for National Research Integrity Board, and FDA Approves Drugs Faster than European Medicines Agency

This week’s Research Ethics Roundup examines the New England Journal of Medicine’s (NEJM) editor-in-chief’s call for a new approach to sharing clinical trial data, how experts are trying to improve drug testing success rates by reviewing pre-clinical research assumptions, a National Academies committee’s call for a nongovernmental body to promote research integrity, and a new study that rebuts critics’ claims that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is slow to approve new drugs for the American market.

The post Research Ethics Roundup: New England Journal of Medicine Editor Wants Changes in Research Culture, Why Lab Animals Aren’t Simply “Human Stand-Ins,” Proposal for National Research Integrity Board, and FDA Approves Drugs Faster than European Medicines Agency appeared first on Ampersand.

Source: Ampersand, the blog of PRIM&R.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Food Security & Nutrition in Timor-Leste

Q&A with Becky McLaren

 

Can you briefly describe the Timor-Leste project and your recent visit to the country?

 

The project is a strategic review of the food security and nutrition situation in Timor-Leste. We’re working with the World Food Programme, which has done similar work in other countries. We’re evaluating what’s been done in the past and what’s currently going on in order to make recommendations for future work. Our review is framed around the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically SDG 2 which aims to end hunger worldwide by 2030.

 

Our recent trip was an opportunity to develop relationships with our different collaborators, including our main partner in the review, CEPAD; build an outline for the project’s next steps; and meet other stakeholders – government, international and local NGOs, and civil society organizations.

 

Can you tell us about some of the unique nutrition and food security challenges facing Timor-Leste?

 

Timor-Leste is a post-conflict country which is still in the window of peacebuilding and becoming more stable. The country was colonized by Portugal until 1975 and then occupied by Indonesia until the UN helped it achieve independence in 2002. There was a reemergence of conflict in 2006, and UN peacekeepers maintained a presence in Timor-Leste until 2012. At the present, the country has a unique opportunity to move beyond creating a stable government and into building food and nutrition security. The government has the chance to restructure the agriculture and food systems.

 

Timor-Leste also has serious nutrition challenges, with one of the highest stunting rates in the world.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

St. Jude Medical Played Down Defibrillator Failures for Years, F.D.A. Says

The medical device maker St. Jude Medical played down the failure of some batteries in its defibrillators, shipping them for years before recalling the devices last fall, according to a warning letter the Food and Drug Administration issued this week.

Source: Bioethics Bulletin by the Berman Institute of Bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Young Midwestern Farmers Want to Grow Sustainable Food – But They Need Help

Midwestern states are the second leading producers of crops and livestock behind California. But young farmers are leaving, put off by high land prices and startup costs.

Source: Bioethics Bulletin by the Berman Institute of Bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Blinded by the Promise of Stem Cell Treatments

Alan F. Cruess cautions against the use of unproven stem cell ‘treatments.’

__________________________________________

Recently, many of you may have read about three patients who are blind after receiving stem cell ‘treatments.’  The patients were ‘treated’ at a Florida clinic for age-related macular degeneration. This common eye condition is the leading cause of vision loss among people over the age of 50. The clinic harvested stem cells from the patients using liposuction and then injected these stem cells into their eyes. Again, these three patients, are now all blind as a result of this unproven ‘treatment.’

There are two types of age-related macular degeneration: ‘wet’ and ‘dry.’ In recent years, treatment of wet macular degeneration has been transformed by new drugs which can be very effective if they are applied early. Meanwhile, treatment of the more common dry macular degeneration remains elusive. As such, patients with dry macular degeneration may be desperate to prevent and reverse blindness and willing to try emerging regenerative therapies.

Some experimental stem cells treatments to prevent blindness are promising, and they are being studied worldwide in laboratories and highly regulated clinical trial settings. In these settings, the safety and efficacy of experimental treatments can be closely monitored. Yet, the safety and efficacy should be called into question when these so-called ‘treatments’ are marketed outside of the research context. This was the case at the Florida clinic.

Before subjecting oneself or a loved one to any new ‘treatment’ with stem cells patients should be informed about the risks and potential benefits of the proposed treatment.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Withholding Food and Fluids in Cases of Advanced Dementia: An Ethical and Legal Choice?

This is a presentation I made on April 6, 2017, at the Vann Center for Ethics at Davidson College.  

This lecture was part of the Vann Center’s Ethics Forum series, and was cosponsored by the Pre-Law Society and the Health & Human Values Department at Davidson College, Compassion & Choices, and the Center for Professional and Practical Ethics at UNC Charlotte.

[embedded content]

Source: bioethics.net, a blog maintained by the editorial staff of The American Journal of Bioethics.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

The ethnographic case: series conclusion by Emily Yates-Doerr

Editors note: This entry concludes the series “The Ethnographic Case” which ran every other Monday between June 2015 and July 2016. The bookCase, which holds 27 cases, can be accessed here.

One day, early on in the series, we received two submissions. Their similar anatomy was striking. Each featured a medical waiting room. Someone entered the space with a gift for the clinical personnel, the gift was accepted, and something shifted in the resulting care.

In Aaron Ansell’s case, set within gardens of an informal clinic in Piauí, Brazil, the gift was a small satchel of milk. Rima Praspaliauskiene’s was set in a Lithuanian public hospital and the gift was a rich chocolate cake. Aaron, who works and teaches on legal orders, analyzed the exchange as a challenge to hospital norms of equalitarianism. He helped us to see how the give-and-take of milk interrupts the requirements of a deracinated liberal democracy, offering instead the warm sociality of personal affinity. Rima, who focuses on medical care and valuing, used the object of the cake to query the social scientist’s impulse to explain why people do what they do. She shows us how this impulse may rest upon the linearity and equivalence of rational calculation, uncomfortably treating sociality as a commodity.

The juxtaposition of these submissions is emblematic – a case, if you will – of something we have seen throughout this series: the art of ethnographic writing resides in a relation between what is there and what is done with it.

Beginnings

We might trace the origin of the series to a business meeting at the AAAs, when we offered the idea of “the ethnographic case” for a Somatosphere series.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Toxicologist Aims To Label Ethical Standards

Toxicologist Alan Goldberg knows what an industrial pig nursery should look and smell like. So one with no pigs, no slop, and no aroma was certainly surprising. Goldberg toured such a sanitized—and possibly staged—facility in 2006 while he was part of the 15-member Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, tasked to examine how industry practices impact human health, animal welfare, the environment, and rural communities.

 

The facilities with actual animals in them told a different tale. He recalls one poultry shed in Arkansas that housed 45,000 chickens clustered on a dirt floor that had likely not been cleaned since before the last harvest. Inside, the potent mix of nitrous oxide and ammonia, a byproduct of the chicken feces and urine, made the commissioners’ eyes burn. “The word the Pew Commission used to describe the conditions we saw was ‘inhumane.’ Personally, I would say ‘cruel,’” says Goldberg, a professor of environmental health and engineering at the Bloomberg School of Public Health and the founding director of the school’s Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.

 

THE PHILOSOPHY BEHIND THE PROJECT IS TO CREATE A TEMPLATE OF ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY AND BETTER INFORM CONSUMERS ABOUT THEIR CHOICES.

In its 2008 landmark report, the commission condemned the state of industrial production and made sweeping recommendations, including the ban of nontherapeutic anti­biotics, improved management of food animal waste to lessen contamination of waterways, and the phasing out of intensive animal confinement.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

In the Journals–March 2017, Part II by Julia Kowalski

This is Part II of March’s article round-up. You can find part I here.

In addition to the articles below, Theory, Culture and Society features an interview with Michel Foucault from 1983.

New Genetics and Society

Everything and nothing: regulating embryo research in Canada

Alana Cattapan & Dave Snow

This article examines how medical and scientific professionals experience and engage with the governance of embryo research in Canada. Drawing on the history of embryo regulation in Canada and the findings of a survey conducted with lab directors in Canadian fertility clinics, we identify a disjuncture between the rules established by legislation, regulations, and research ethics guidelines and the real-life experiences of professionals in the field. This disjuncture, we argue, is the result of both the absence of implementation mechanisms that would give substance to the governing framework, as well as an inability on the part of medical and scientific professionals to engage in robust self-regulation. Overall, we demonstrate that in an ethically charged and highly technical area of policy-making like embryonic research, clarity about the roles and responsibilities of government and professionals in policy-making and implementation is critical to effective governance.

Not just about “the science”: science education and attitudes to genetically modified foods among women in Australia

Heather J. Bray & Rachel A. Ankeny

Previous studies investigating attitudes to genetically modified (GM) foods suggest a correlation between negative attitudes and low levels of science education, both of which are associated with women. In a qualitative focus group study of Australian women with diverse levels of education, we found attitudes to GM foods were part of a complex process of making “good” food decisions, which included other factors such as locally produced, fresh/natural, healthy and nutritious, and convenient.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.