Tag: dentistry

Bioethics Blogs

2017 Health Law Professors Conference

Join me in Atlanta on June 8-10, for the 40th Annual ASLME Health Law Professors Conference

The conference, the oldest and largest of its kind, serves as the premier meeting ground for professionals who teach health law or bioethics in schools of law, medicine, public health, health care administration, pharmacy, nursing and dentistry.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Letter from Africa: Doctors Take on Traditional Healers in Kenya

March 24, 2016

(BBC) – It might be unfair to say the men and women in white coats were getting a little jealous of their herbalist counterparts, who have faced no restrictions, even as they claim to treat anything. The move by the Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board – which regulates the practice of medicine and dentistry – to allow advertising by doctors, is partly seen as a fight back. Medical practitioners will be able to counter the popularity of herbalists, who were able to to aggressively market their products and services, while doctors, bound by their code of ethics, kept a respectful distance.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Creative Minds: Exploring the Health Effects of Fracking

Elaine Hill

A few years ago, Elaine Hill was a doctoral student in applied economics at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, studying maize markets in Uganda [1] and dairy supply chains in the northeastern U.S [2]. But when fracking—a controversial, hydraulic fracturing technique used to produce oil and natural gas—became a hot topic in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, Hill was motivated to shift gears.

After watching a documentary about fracking, Hill decided to search for scientific evidence on its possible health effects, but found relatively little high-quality data. So, she embarked on a new project—one that eventually earned her a Ph.D.—to evaluate what, if any, impact fracking has on infant and child health. Now, supported by a 2015 NIH Director’s Early Independence Award, Hill is pursuing this line of research further as an assistant professor of Public Health Sciences at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY.

During the fracking process, production crews bore up to a mile or more into the ground to tap deposits of oil and gas trapped in shale and other underground rock formations. They then inject large volumes of water, sand, and chemicals into the ground at very high pressures, fracturing the rock and releasing oil and gas deposits through what’s commonly known as a “shale gas well.” Most health concerns focus on potentially toxic chemicals in the mix created by fracking, which either remains underground or is stored in above-ground waste ponds. These chemicals—ranging from acids to hydrocarbons—have the potential to enter air, soil, and/or groundwater.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

2016 Health Law Professors Conference

If you are interested in presenting at the 2016 Health Law Professors Conference, please submit a proposal here. If you haven’t submitted a proposal yet there is still time. The deadline has been extended to December 15th.

The 39th Annual Health Law Professors Conference will take place June 2-4, 2016 in Boston, MA hosted by Boston University School of Law. The conference is intended for
professionals who teach law or bioethics in schools of law, medicine, public health, health care administration, pharmacy, nursing, and dentistry. This conference combines presentations by experienced health law teachers with the opportunity for discussion among participants. The program includes plenary and concurrent sessions and is designed to provide updates on issues at the forefront of law and medicine and to provide an opportunity to share strategies, ideas, and materials. 

In addition to the conference sessions, we would like to point out some highlights of the schedule that will surely make your attendance at the 39th Annual Health Law Professors Conference memorable! On Thursday, June 2nd, we will start (at approximately 3:00 pm ET) with the Jay Healey Teaching Session. Following the pre-conference session, there will be a Special Opening Lecture by Don Berwick hosted by the Petrie-Flom Center at Harvard Law School with a reception to follow.

The conference at Boston University includes a full day of sessions on Friday, June 3rd with a “must attend” special event in the evening during which ASLME will present the Annual Jay Healey Teaching Award. Saturday will start with a Boston “mini-marathon” (two mile run/walk) that will start at the iconic Citgo sign and visit the finish line of the Boston Marathon.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

In the Journals, October 2015 – Part II by Sultana Banulescu

This month’s “In the Journals…” brings us a body of articles discussing pregnancy, childbirth, nursing, female anatomy, substance abuse, and addiction, with a focus on risk, secrecy, stigma, and strategies of coping and self-preservation.

Critical Public Health

What’s the story on addiction? Popular myths in the USA and Finland

Matilda Hellman & Robin Room

The study inquires into popular myths on addiction in two countries: Finland and the USA. It provides evidence of the manners in which the typical media narratives incorporate basic value traits from their context of origin. We distinguish some main features in the narrative set-ups that support different solution repertoires for dealing with addiction. Belief and hope are crucial story elements associated with the US emphasis on group formation and local empowerment. The individual is assigned obligations and can be morally condemned. In the Finnish journalistic prose, there seems to be an inherent belief that the agenda-setting in itself will propel the question into the institutionalised welfare state solution machinery. The occurrence of a story resolution was customary in the US stories, whereas the Finnish stories were typically left pending. The evidence produced has implications for the ongoing debate regarding the mainstreaming of both definitions of and solutions to addiction problems.

Low income, high risk: the overlapping stigmas of food allergy and poverty

Leia M. Minaker, Susan J. Elliott & Ann Clarke

The aim of this study was to explore experiences and coping strategies of low-income families affected by food allergies. Of particular interest were experiences of allergy-related stigma within the context of poverty stigma.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Cecil the Lion: Can Health Care Professionals Ethically Be Sport Hunters

by Craig Klugman, Ph.D.

In James Patterson’s book (and now TV miniseries) Zoo, the animals have acquired an intelligence that removes their fear of humans. More specifically, the animals attack humans, driven by radio waves from technology. In character’s belief, the animals are banding together to take care of the greatest threat to their existence—us. With that perspective, I examine the social media uproar over a dentist killing Cecil the Lion.

The social media buzz started not because a man hunted a lion, but because he happened to shoot a beloved lion. Cecil was a 13-year-old lion who lived in Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe. He was a well-known tourist attraction, wore a tracking collar and was part of an Oxford University study. There are debates over whether the hunt was legal. What is legal and what is ethical are too different things. This blog is about the latter.

Cecil’s killing is buzzworthy, but he is only one of 244 lions that will be hunted this year—that’s the average number of lions hunted for trophy each year. We might not have heard of lion trophy hunting if a celebrity animal had not been shot. The other 243 did not cause a ripple in the social media universe.

Walter James Palmer is a dentist from Minnesota. He reportedly paid $50,000 to hunt a lion with a crossbow. Most hunts make about $60,000 to $120,000 with the costs of hunting license, visit, travel, and preparation of the carcass for display. Lion hunting is legal in 27-32% of the animal’s current territory and many African nations that had limits on hunting have removed them.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

In the Journals, July 2015—Part I by Jason Alley

Here is the first of two postings for this month’s “In the Journals,” featuring a lively collection of summer articles.  Happy reading/browsing/downloading!

 

Science, Technology, & Human Values

Regulatory Anatomy: How “Safety Logics” Structure European Transplant Medicine

Klaus Hoeyer

This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions.  With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk.  I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation.  Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work.  In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate.  In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise.  In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape.

Disastrous Publics: Counter-enactments in Participatory Experiments

Manuel Tironi

This article explores how citizen participation was methodologically devised and materially articulated in the postdisaster reconstruction of Constitución, one of the most affected cities after the earthquake and tsunami that battered south central Chile in 2010.  I argue that the techniques deployed to engineer the participation were arranged as a policy experiment where a particular type of public was provoked—one characterized by its emotional detachment, political engagement, and social tolerance.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Ethics Inside and Out

Letitia Meynell argues that professional schools must both integrate ethics across their curricula and include ethics education taught by people external to the profession and the school.

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The case of the Dalhousie Dentistry School Class of 2015 Gentleman brought to the fore both the importance of ethics and our failures to adequately teach ethics at the university. While ethics is important across the academy, it is distinctively important and particularly challenging in professional training contexts. For better or worse, professionals generally are accorded positions of authority and respect in our society. They are frequently in positions of trust whether with regard to individual patients and clients (as with health care professionals and accountants) or with the public at large (as with engineers and architects). Thus it is reasonable to think that substantial effort should be put into equipping students in professional programs with a wide ranging and nuanced understanding of ethical issues and challenges, ranging from those particular to their line of work to quite general concerns about the public good.

While some maintain that professional schools should integrate ethics into their curricula—an approach that has recently been taken by Dalhousie’s Faculty of Management—I think there are important limitations to this approach. After all, ethical responsibilities must be understood not only from the perspective of those within the profession, but they must also be responsive to the interests of others not in the profession.

In house only ethics education risks insulating professional ethics from general ethical norms and practices that should inform the members of any just and functional society.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

In the Journals – March 2015 by Anna Zogas

Here are some of the journal articles that have been published in March 2015. Enjoy!

New Genetics and Society

Origin stories from a regional placenta tissue collection (open access)
Maria Fannin and Julie Kent

Twenty-three years ago when women and their children were recruited to a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study during pregnancy, placentas were collected at birth. This paper explores the history of a regional placenta biobank and contemporary understandings of its value for the constitution of a research population. We draw on interviews with some of the mothers and those responsible for the establishment and curation of the placenta collection in order to explore the significance and meaning of the collection for them. Given its capacity to stand in for the study cohort of mothers and children, we argue that the material significance of the placenta biobank as a research tool seems far less important than the work it does in constituting a population. The stories about this collection may be understood within the wider context of developments in biobanking and the bioeconomy.

Standardizing work as a recursive process: shaping the embryonic stem cell field
Lena Eriksson and Andrew Webster

In this paper, we examine processes of standardization and their role in helping to stabilize human embryonic stem cells as biological objects and in building the stem cell field itself. Drawing on empirical data from the emerging embryonic stem cell field, we explore the various arenas within which standardizing work goes on and how these relate to each other as different types of labour within and beyond the lab, one to do with stabilizing the bio-object and a second to do with its comparability and identity within a wider domain.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Follow the Golden Rule: An Interview with Gary Chadwick

by Maeve Luthin, Professional Development Manager


Welcome to another installment of our featured member interviews where we introduce you to our members—individuals who work to advance ethical research on a daily basis. Over the course of the next few months we will be shining a spotlight on members of the Certified IRB Professional (CIP®) and Certified Professional IACUC Administration (CPIA®) Councils.  Please read on to learn more about their professional experiences, how membership helps connect them to a larger community, and what goes on behind-the-scenes in their lives!


Today we’d like to introduce you to Gary Chadwick, PharmD, MPH, CIP, professor of medical humanities and bioethics at the University of Rochester in the School of Medicine and Dentistry.
Maeve Luthin (ML): When and why did you join the field?
Gary Chadwick (GC): My first contact with IRBs was in 1986 at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in DC when, as director of quality assurance, I was asked about off-label use in research by the IRB chair. Later, after a short diversion working in the Office of the Surgeon General under C. Everett Koop, MD, I joined the Office for Protection from the Research Risk (OPRR, which is now known as the Office for Human Research Protections). Regarding why I joined the field, research ethics and the work that IRBs do are important and challenging. I enjoy being involved with this exciting field, especially now with the potential regulatory for change and the quest for new answers as technology expands.
ML: You played an instrumental role in the development of the Certified IRB Professional (CIP®) credential.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.