Tag: bioethical issues

Bioethics Blogs

Moral panic in the intellect

Moral panic develops intellectually. It is our thoughts that are racing. Certain mental images make such a deep impression on us that we take them for Reality, for Truth, for Facts. Do not believe that the intellect is cold and objective. It can boil over with agitated thoughts.

This is evident in bioethics, where many issues are filled with anguish. Research information about cloned animals, about new techniques for editing in the genome, or about embryonic stem cell research, evoke scary images of subversive forms of research, threatening human morality. The panic requires a sensitive intellect. There, the images of the research acquire such dimensions that they no longer fit into ordinary life. The images take over the intellect as the metaphysical horizon of Truth. Commonplace remarks that could calm down the agitated intellect appear to the intellect as naive.

A science news in National Geographic occasions these musings. It is about the first attempt in the United States to edit human embryos genetically. Using so-called CRISPR-Cas9 technique, the researchers removed a mutation associated with a common inherited heart disease. After the successful editing, the embryos were destroyed. (You find the scientific article reporting the research in Nature.)

Reading such research information, you might feel anxiety; anxiety that soon takes possession of your intellect: What will they do next? Develop “better” humans who look down on us as a lower species? Can we permit science to change human nature? NO, we must immediately introduce new legislation that bans all genetic editing of human embryos!

If the intellect can boil over with such agitated thoughts, and if moral panic legislation is imprudent, then I believe that bioethics needs to develop its therapeutic skills.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Meyerhoff Professor Grapples with Bioethical Issues

crossposted from Rising to the Challenge: The Campaign for Johns Hopkins

 


 

 

How should resources be allocated between HIV treatment for those already infected and finding ways to prevent HIV to avert more illness and death in the long run?

 

This is the sort of thorny question Jeremy Sugarman, MD, MPH, MA – deputy director for medicine of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics and the Harvey “Bud” M. Meyerhoff Professor of Bioethics and Medicine – tackles in his research.

 

And he credits the Meyerhoff Professorship for not only bringing him to Hopkins, but giving him the freedom to take chances in his research and help those who are most vulnerable.

 

“The professorship made it possible to explore things that were a little bit more risky in bioethics. Classically, we need to raise money to do particular projects, and those particular projects are very circumscribed. We can’t always take on a venture, something new, something unusual,” Sugarman explains.

 

“The professorship gave me the opportunity to work with colleagues in the School of Medicine, in the Bloomberg School of Public Health, and across the university, on questions of bioethics that otherwise may not be addressed,” he says. Some of these earlier projects involved international HIV prevention trials in border regions of China and Thailand and preventing HIV transmission from mother to child in Uganda.

 

“Previously, I wouldn’t have time to just leave, go on a trip, work with those people, and grapple with some of the ethical issues that people around the globe were facing.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

CRISPR diagnoisis tool. A new biomedical breakthrough from genome editing to disease diagnosis

CRISPR techniques are gaining traction in another realm of medical technology. CRISPR diagnosis tool

It has recently been announced that the CRISPR tool, used up to now in the field of genome editing, can be used in another field, namely in diagnosis, combining it with the enzyme Cas13a instead of with Cas9 (See HERE). By combining CRISPR with the new enzyme, discovered by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, investigators can quickly and cheaply detect several specific RNA sequences at the same time, including the RNA of some viruses, such as Zika. This new use does not fall within the field of genome editing, so it does not share its bioethical issues, but it is a major biomedical breakthrough.

La entrada CRISPR diagnoisis tool. A new biomedical breakthrough from genome editing to disease diagnosis aparece primero en Bioethics Observatory.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Eugenics in Tennessee

A recent news story from my home state of Tennessee brings up questions of informed consent, reproductive ethics, eugenics, opioid abuse, and other bioethical issues.  In May, White County judge Sam Benningfield issued an order that allows inmates to have their sentences reduced by thirty days if they consent to sterilization procedures: vasectomies for men and (reversible) Nexplanon implants for women.  Benningfield’s order is his response to the repeat drug offenders he sees in the courtroom.  He describes the sterilizations as a means to “encourage personal responsibility,” and also states that, “…if you reach two or three people, maybe that’s two or three kids not being born under the influence of drugs. I see it as a win, win.”

This order is less surprising, perhaps, when considered in light of the United States’ very recent history of eugenics and forced sterilizations. As Kyle Sammin writes at The Federalist,

“[Benningfield’s] idea of ‘trying to break a vicious cycle of repeat offenders’ is, nearly word-for-word, an echo of the Supreme Court’s reasoning in Buck v. Bell, the 1927 case that upheld Virginia’s policy of sterilizing state asylum inmates without their consent. The decision by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes laid out a similar desire to break a cycle of reproduction by people the judge viewed as unworthy of life: ‘It is better…if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind….Three generations of imbeciles are enough.’”

Benningfield’s order deems inmates’ potential future children as unworthy of life because of their parents’ situations.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

June 2017 Newsletter

Global Bioethics Initiative (GBI) is dedicated to fostering public awareness and understanding of bioethical issues, and to exploring solutions to bioethical challenges.
Through its events and activities, which include annual summer schools on global bioethics, GBI seeks to keep the international community, policy decision-makers, the media, and the general public aware of important bioethical issues which is essential for making informed decisions and fostering public debate. Using various platforms, we at GBI are able to promote our motto “Doing bioethics in real life!”.
GBI is an active member of the United Nations Academic Impact (UNAI) and enjoys a special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the UN’s central platform for debate, reflection, and innovative thinking on sustainable development. Check out our website here.
Global Bioethics Initiative (GBI) launches
its third edition Summer School Program

NYC (June 19-30), 2017New York, New York June 19, 2017: GBI starts its summer school program sponsored by Pace University, College of Health Professions and New York
Medical College. Lead by experts in the field of Bioethics, students and professionals will witness Bioethics in various forms such as film screenings, field trips, and lectures/seminars, ending with a completion ceremony. Topics addressed in the program are: embryonic stem cell research, cloning, gene therapy, end-of-life care, genetics, reproductive technologies, human subject research, organ transplantation and access to health care.

“I am absolutely confident you leave this program enriched, “said Dr. Bruce Gelb, President of GBI. You will find that what you learn over the coming days, will impact how you interact and engage with the world in many aspects of life.”

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

My Sister’s Keeper: An Assessment of Living Organ Donation among Minors

by Alex Fleming

The 2009 film My Sister’s Keeper, based on Jodi Picoult’s 2004 New York Times bestselling novel which bears the same name, is among other things, a controversial story about a young girl (Anna Fitzgerald) who sues her own parents in order to obtain legal rights to the use of her body. For as long as she can remember, Anna has unwillingly been providing blood and bone marrow to her older and critically ill sister, Kate. As the story unfolds, tension within the family arises as the 13 year-old Anna Fitzgerald becomes fully aware of her reason for existence, so to speak, which is to prevent the death of her older sister by providing a regular supply of blood and bone marrow, which she has done regularly for several years. Later on, as Kate’s condition worsens and her renal function begins to fail, the parents naturally turn to Anna to provide what could be a life-saving kidney transplant for her older sister. The climax of the story begins as Anna confidently and heroically refuses. The story raises a slew of bioethical issues which are beyond the scope of this essay; however, the story sheds light on a topic worthy of discussion: living organ donation among minors.

As the supply of organs suitable for transplantation decreases and the demand for them increases, the question of living organ donation among those yet of age has become a question of greater concern, primarily among those who point to the various ethical implications which such a procedure creates.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

Participants’ Testimonials: GBI Summer School a Smashing Success, (June 19-30), 2017

The GBI Summer School proved to be even better than anticipated or described. As a newcomer to the discipline, I had expected the course to provide a broad overview of topics and speakers. Indeed, while broad, the degree of expertise and timely subject material provided an excellent and comprehensive survey of the discipline in global and local settings. Moreover, the students provided another dimension of diversity, both in nationalities and areas of expertise. The speakers made their presentation materials readily available, answered questions, and were willing to address topics of interest offline. I would strongly recommend the course to both novices and subject matter experts alike. The course especially demonstrated the need, relevance, and desirability for global bioethics to be better incorporated into public policy formulation.

Geoffrey Pack, Prevention and Protection Officer, Office of Homeland and Security, City of San Diego, M.A.L.D., Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University in Cooperation with Harvard University

The GBI Summer School, in the heart of NYC’s Pace University Campus, is a fantastic opportunity! International scholars and professionals from all over the world attended the program, contributing their experiences and engaging with bioethics experts. The City of New York – with the nearby Pace University Campus, Brooklyn Bridge, City Hall, and 9/11 Memorial – provided the perfect setting to discuss the global ethical challenges in technology and medicine. Discussions ranged from law and politics to culture and psychology, encompassing the ethical dilemmas that define the 21st century. I have immensely enjoyed not just the internationally known faculty but also hearing from the learners who come from all over the world representing diverse fields.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics News

GBI Summer School on Global Bioethics, Human Rights and Public Policy

GBI Summer School on Global Bioethics, Human Rights and Public Policy –  Our First Educational Field Trips

by Anaeke Paschal Chinonye

I am a Ph.D. in Philosophy, at the University of Lagos, Nigeria. I am the winner of a partial scholarship which gave me the possibility to attend this unique and very interesting program hosted by GBI.

Friday, June, 23, was a day for field trips. First to the United Nations Headquarters and then to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre. Initially, I thought field trips would be mere social outings and sightseeing with opportunities to take a lot of pictures. The trips proved far more than that; it was rather educational trips loaded with significance. As I got to the main entrance, some basic facts about the UN which I learnt during my Master of International Law and Diplomacy class in the University of Lagos, Nigeria began to flash in my mind. Chiefly, a commitment to international peace and security.

One of my colleagues called me across the road to take pictures, immediately I crossed the road, my eyes went straight to an inscription from the Prophet Isaiah: They shall beat their swords into plough-shares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall no longer lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore. At this point, though the world is still ravaged by wars, terrorism, and insecurity, I felt the UN has a divine mandate which thus must be commended and supported.

Now, after the security check, as I walked into the compound, still lost in wondering contemplation of the critical need for global peace and security, I spotted the statue of a gun with a tied barrel…signaling no more wars.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Educating the church about how to think about bioethics

Janie Valentine’s post on Monday about a Christian health sharing ministry considering the surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy to be the moral equivalent of abortion points out a major concern related to the church and bioethics. This is particularly a concern regarding the evangelical Protestant church and bioethics. With its hierarchical structure the Roman Catholic Church has a way of connecting the well considered thoughts about bioethical issues that are expressed by Roman Catholic ethicists with the ministries of the church. Protestant churches, and evangelical Protestant churches in particular, have a significant disconnect between those who think deeply about and write about bioethical issues and those who are doing ministry.

The issue of whether to cover the costs of surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy illustrates the need for people within the church to learn how to think about bioethics and other ethical issues. It is not that we need to have some established evangelical set of ethical positions on issues, but rather an understanding by people in the church of how to properly analyze and think about an ethical issue. Over centuries of thought Christian scholars have recognized the principle of double effect as a good way of analyzing moral dilemmas in which doing something that is good, such as saving the life of a woman with an ectopic pregnancy results in the unwanted bad affect of the death of an embryo. It is clear that we should not focus solely on consequences and do things that are wrong even to save a person’s life, but it is reasonable at times to do good things that have unintended but foreseeable bad effects.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.

Bioethics Blogs

Health care disparities: a pro-life issue

This month’s Health Affairs carries an article examining the correlation between one’s income and one’s perceptions about one’s own health and health care. Worldwide, those with the lowest incomes feel that their health is worse than those with the highest incomes do. They also are more likely than those with higher incomes to skip necessary treatment because they can’t afford it, and are more concerned that if they become seriously ill, they won’t get the best treatment their country has to offer. Perhaps not unsurprisingly, the United States has one of the greatest disparities between those with the lowest and highest incomes. But at least Americans are also the most aware of this disparity: 67% of US respondents, the highest number of any in the world, agree that “many” people in the US do not have access to the health care that they need. This is a good thing: awareness of a problem is the first step towards fixing it.

But what if we are aware of the problem, yet don’t really think it’s a problem? Only 54% of us in the US think it’s unfair that people with higher incomes can afford better health care than those with lower incomes. What if we see unfairness, but don’t recognize it as unfair?

In his post to this blog on June 6th, Mark McQuain asked what our number one bioethical issues are. As a physician who is privileged to care for a wide diversity of patients — from higher-ups in large corporations to those struggling to support a family by working two jobs and driving Uber — I see daily the very real differences between those who are granted full access to all our health care system has to offer, and those who get only the scraps from the health-care table: differences not just between healthy and sick but between life and death.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.