Bioethics News

Stem cell research. The two sides of the coin

Science facing market

The “heads” of stem cell research

Stem cells today represent a great hope for the future of regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into cell lines of almost any tissue, making them a promising therapeutic option for many diseases.

These pluripotent cells are found in embryonic and also in adult tissues. Their isolation and culture in specific media may lead to the development of tissues that are useful in regenerative therapies for conditions such as heart disease, myelopathies, diabetes, nerve injuries, retinopathies, etc. After their isolation, they are injected directly into the tissues to be regenerated, so that the stem cells differentiate into cells of these same tissues.

A third way of obtaining pluripotent cells is that described by Yamanaka 10 years ago, a finding for which he was awarded the Nobel prize in Medicine. Starting from a differentiated adult cell, Yamanaka managed to find a way of “dedifferentiating” it so that it returned to its pluripotent state, to then “redifferentiate” it into a particular cell line with therapeutic utility. These are known as iPS or induced pluripotent stem cells.

Similarly, tissues that simulate the function of certain organs have been reproduced in vitro from stem cells, and could, in the future, be an alternative to current organ transplantation.

The current state of the clinical application of stem cells remains uncertain. Although successful outcomes have been reported in some fields, such as cardiology and haematology, many clinical trials and therapeutic applications have failed due to problems arising in the differentiation processes and the appearance of tumours.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.