|Richard Payne, MD|
Race and socio-economic status are regrettably important factors in determining life expectancy. There has been a persistent gap in mortality between whites and blacks for many decades, with one study showing that blacks suffer approximately 800,000 “excessive deaths” over a 10-year period relative to whites. More recently, studies have demonstrated that the wealthiest Americans live more than 8 years longer than less wealthy Americans and, tragically, color is still a marker for poverty in our country.
Although various studies indicate that lower socio-economic status is the most powerful determinant of health, there have been a plethora of studies over the past two decades showing that there are disparities in access and outcomes of care between whites and communities of color, especially black and brown. Tellingly, these disparities even occur in the Medicare system, where there is a presumption of equal access.
In 2002, The Institute of Medicine issued a report, “Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care” (http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2002/Unequal-Treatment-Confronting-Racial-and-Ethnic-Disparities-in-Health-Care.aspx). The report described basic factors that support the persistence of racially-based healthcare disparities: differences in patient preferences, unfair and inequitable operations of the healthcare system, and frank racism and discrimination.
Black and White Pain
Now, a recent spate of articles adds THREE more factors responsible for persistence of healthcare disparities: ignorance, neglect, and lack of conviction to change the status quo. Earlier this month the National Academy of Sciences published the results of a University of Virginia study in which 222 white medical students and residents were asked to rate on a scale of zero to 10 pain levels they would associate with two mock pain cases – for both a white and black patient.
The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.