Bioethics Blogs

Stopping or Selling Human Germline Modification?

One failed experiment can crystallize a discussion. On April 18, a paper describing an attempt to use CRISPR gene-editing technology to modify a human embryo was published in Protein & Cell, an obscure Chinese journal. On April 22, Nature, which had rejected the paper on ethical grounds, published a news article about the publication, which was the first many people had heard of it. And then pretty much everyone in the biotech/bioethics world had something to say.

The pump had been primed by recent commentaries in Nature and Science that called, with significantly different emphasis, for a moratorium on human germline interventions. An earlier widely circulated article in MIT Technology Review had suggested such experiments were soon to be published.

Creating genetically modified humans has long been seen as dangerously unacceptable, and is prohibited by law in dozens of countries. Until the recent advent of new gene-editing tools, scientists had also refrained from human germline experiments.

The Center for Genetics and Society’s reasons for supporting these prohibitions are described in these press releases (1, 2) and this backgrounder. In short, CGS supports the prospect of somatic gene therapy, which if successful would help consenting patients by treating disease but would not affect their descendants; and opposes inheritable genetic modification (or germline intervention) for multiple reasons, including dire safety risks, ethical considerations and social consequences.

Most responses to the prospects of GM humans can be roughly grouped into a few categories, each of which covers a spectrum of views: opposition, either permanent or conditional; calls for dialog, with varying implications; and support, even enthusiasm. Views also vary on whether, when and under what conditions it would be appropriate or acceptable to modify the genes of human embryos for research purposes.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.