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by Bonnie Steinbock, Bioethics Program Faculty
An Italian scientist, Sergio Canavero, claims that he is two years away from performing the world’s first human head transplant, in which the head of one person would be grafted onto the body of a newly deceased person
Canavero’s proposed procedure would involve cooling the patient’s head and the donor’s body so that their cells do not die during the operation. After the head is cut off the patient’s body, the blood vessels would be lined up, and the spinal cord cut with a very sharp knife to minimize nerve damage. The patient would have to be immobilized by being kept in a coma for several weeks. Canavero believes that the patient would be able to speak when he woke up, although a year or more of physical therapy would be necessary for him to be able to move his body.
The biggest technical obstacle is that no one knows how to reconnect spinal nerves and make them work again, although there has been some success with animals. In 1970, a team at Case Western Reserve transplanted the head of one monkey onto the body of another, although they did not attempt a full spinal cord transfer. The monkey was unable to move its body. In 2014, researchers at Harbin Medical University in China were able to preserve breathing and circulatory function in mice. However, as is well known, “everything works in mice.” Most neurosurgeons are skeptical that this would work in humans.
The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.