Frankenstein babies and designer babies? Ethical concerns raised by “3 person embryos”

The story about the UK passing a law to allowa reproductive technology called mitochondrial donation, what has been informally known as three person or three parent embryos, recently dominated the news.Part of the reason this story received so much attention is because the idea of a child with more than two biological parents sounds really scary, even Frankensteinish.While new medical technologies often raise ethical concerns, it is imperative to understand the science behind these technologies in order to accurately assess the likelihood and degree of potential harms caused by these technologies. In the case of three parent embryos, once we understand the science, this technology is not as threatening as it may initially appear.

The UK will only allow mitochondrial donations in cases where women could pass along mitochondrial diseases to their children. There are various types of mitochondrial diseases, which affect approximately one in 8,500 people and can lead to serious and fatal conditions. The mitochondria are located in the cytoplasm of the cell and serve as the cell powerhouses. Mitochondria have their own set of DNA with the 37 genes and a mitochondrial disease occurs when there is a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial donation allows women who are at risk for passing along mitochondrial diseases to the children to avoid doing so by using the mitochondria of a donor. There are two ways this can be done. In the first way, known asmaternal spindle transfer technique, the nucleus from the donor egg is removed and replaced with the nucleus from the intended mother’s egg.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.