Bioethics Blogs

How to Die in Canada

by Sean Philpott-Jones, Director of the Center for Bioethics and Clinical Leadership

Last week, our neighbors to the north took a huge step towards legalizing physician aid-in-dying. On Friday, the Supreme Court of Canada unanimously struck down that country’s ban on the practice, suspending two sections of the Criminal Code that outlawed assisted suicide and euthanasia, and ordering the Canadian Parliament and the various provincial legislatures to draft new legislation that would allow physician aid-in-dying.

This is not the first time that Canada has dipped it toe into these treacherous waters. Earlier this year, the Canadian province of Quebec passed Bill 52, also known as ‘An Act Respecting End-of-Life Care’. That Act, which would have taken effect in December, would grant terminally ill Quebecers the right to request a physician’s aid in dying.

In order to qualify for medical assistance in ending their lives, however, these patients must have “an incurable illness that is causing unbearable suffering”. They would have to be in constant and unbearable pain that doctors couldn’t relieve with treatment. The request for aid-in-dying would also have to be made in writing, witnessed by the attending physician, and approved though consultation with a medical team after two doctors determine that the patient is competent to make this request.

The Supreme Court ruling went much further than what Quebec’s law would allow. The nine Canadian justices ruled that physician-assisted suicide should be made available to any competent adult who “clearly consents to the termination of life and has a grievous and irremediable medical condition (including an illness, disease or disability) that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition.”

By including references to disability and psychological suffering, the Court potentially opened the doors not only to those with terminal illnesses, but also those with chronic but not life threatening illness or disabilities, as well as those suffering from mental illness.

The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.