Nuclear genome transfer for preventing the transmission of mitochondrial disease – also known as “3-person IVF” – is a form of inheritable human genetic modification, which has long been considered off limits. More than 40 countries have adopted laws to prohibit it (and human reproductive cloning), citing deep and enduring concerns about safety, human dignity, and societal consequence.
Extreme biological procedures such as inheritable genetic modification and reproductive cloning pose enormous safety issues. They also raise profound social and ethical challenges. Here we show eight questions that should be considered in assessing nuclear genome transfer or “3-person IVF” techniques. For more detail, see our resource page here.
- What are the likely policy consequences of permitting nuclear genome transfer? If we allow inheritable genetic modification for preventing the transmission of mitochondrial diseases, won’t it increase pressure to allow it for other diseases? If a new line is to be drawn, where would it be? Or will people simply design their children as they wish as soon as technology allows? If so, how could a “genetics arms-race,” leading to new and increasing social disparities, be prevented?
- How will women affected by mitochondrial disease be informed of alternative options for having healthy children, which include IVF with genetic screening to choose a healthy embryo, prenatal genetic testing, using third-party eggs with IVF, and adoption?
- How will women considering using these techniques be fully informed of the risks they pose and the controversies they raise? Would physician-researchers unduly pressure women who are candidates for the procedures, consciously or unconsciously, because of their eagerness for a technical “breakthrough?” Would women in this position be especially vulnerable to persuasion because of their illness?
The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University.